Uman NUH | today: 05/19/2019

Productivity of spelt depending on fertilizer types, their combination and terms of nitrogen fertilizers application

Author(s) Lubych V.V., Candidate of Agricultural Science, Lecturer of Department of Technology of Storage and Processing of Grain, Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine
Kotsyuba S. P., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, , Uman National University of Horticulture
Yevchuk Y.V., , , Uman National University of Horticulture
Category The Agronomy
year 2019 issue Випуск 94 Частина 1
pages 71-83 index UDK 631.559:[633.11:631.8]
DOI 10.31395/2415-8240-2019-94-1-71-83 (Link)
Abstract On the average over the three research years the yield capacity of spelt grain of Zoria Ukrainy variety on the unfertilized plots was 4.55 t/ha. The single-use fertilization with nitrogen fertilizers at a dose of 120 kg ha increased it to 5.28 t/ha or 16%. The distributed application of nitrogen fertilizers (N60 + N60) on the ground of phosphoric and potash fertilizers increased the yield of grain to 5.34 t/ha or 17%, while in the variant: ground+ N60 S35 + N60 – to 5.44 t/ha or 20 % compared to control. The pair combinations of phosphoric and nitrogen and potash and nitrogen fertilizers provided the yield increase up to 5.14-5.20 t/ha or less by 0.08-0.14 points compared to complete mineral fertilizers. The yield capacity of spelt grain of Europe variety was significantly lower in comparison with the Zoria Ukrainy variety. However, the reaction of plants of this variety to the nitrogen fertilizers application was the most significant. Thus, on the average over the three research years, it increased from 3.27 t/ha to 4.95 t/ha in the variant: ground+N60 S35 + N60 or by 1.68 t/ha compared to the variant without fertilizers, and in the Zoria Ukrainy variety – by 0.89 t/ha. The yield capacity varied in different ways depending on the weather conditions during the research years. The weather conditions in 2014 and 2015 were more favorable than in 2013, but the spelt wheat plants of the Zoria Ukrainy variety lodged in 2014 and 2015, and the Europe variety – in 2014. Therefore, the yield capacity of the Zoria Ukrainy variety was the largest in 2013, and the Europe variety – in 2015 The gluten content in the grain of spelt of the Zoria Ukrainy variety was also mostly influenced by the nitrogen fertilizers application. Thus, on the average over the three research years on the unfertilized plots, the gluten content was 44.2%. However, the application of phosphoric and nitrogen, potassium and nitrogen and complete mineral fertilizers increased this index by 8.9-10.3 points compared to the unfertilized plots. Distrubuted nitrogen fertilizer application was the most effective compared to the single-use one. The high efficiency of the first nutrition with the ammonium sulfate was established because the gluten content was the largest – 56.5% or 0.7 points more compared to the ammonium nitrate. The gluten content in the spelt grain of the Europe variety was significantly lower than that of the Zoria Ukrainy variety. On the average over the three research years it increased from 40.7 to 49.0% under the single application of nitrogen fertilizers in a single dose of 120 kg/ha d. r., and in the variant: ground+N60 S35 + N60 - up to 50.1% . On the average over the three research years, the volume of bread made of spelt wheat grain with the nitrogen supply improvement decreased from 470 cm³ under control to 454-459 cm³ under the single nitrogen fertilizer application at a dose of 120 kg/ha d. r. and up to 447-449 cm³ under their divided application. In 2015, the volume of bread made of spelt wheat grain was higher compared to 2013 and 2014. The bread volume decreased together with the increase of protein and gluten content, as between these indices a very high correlation relationship was established, namely: –r = -0,91 – -0,98. It is obvious that the starch content reduction decreased the amount of carbon dioxide, formed during the dough fermentation and was worse held by its gluten-free carcass, since the gluten deformation index was more than 100 units. It was established that the bread quality was more dependent on the wheat variety characteristics than on fertilization. So, the color of the bread crust made of spelt flour of the Zoria Ukrainy variety was dark-golden, the gloss occupied the whole surface of the bread, the soft part of bread was very soft, the aroma and taste were very pronounced, the pores were evenly distributed, the texture was very fine, which corresponded to 9 points. The culinary appraisal of bread of both wheat varieties did not change much depending from the weather conditions, as the content of protein and gluten was high.
Key words spelt, yield capacity, gluten, bread quality, fertilizer.
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